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略過巡覽連結Home > Air Quality Monitoring > Background Monitoring > Introduction and Background

Introduction to Background Monitoring

Lulin Atmospheric Background Station

In the past 20 years, the EPA has established a ground surface monitoring network composed of densely distributed stations. However, most of them can only reflect characteristics of local air pollution. Therefore, the EPA, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Central University (NCU) joined hands and established Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (23.47°N, 120.87°E; 2862 meters in altitude)

Lulin Atmospheric Background Station sits in Yushan National Park, mid-Taiwan. The mountain top of Lulin Front Mountain is ideal to monitor a variety of main pollutants released from mainland Asia to the Pacific Ocean, and changes in their concentration. The station, started to operate on April 13, 2006, has always been at the level of free convection, championing all monitoring stations at a higher altitude in East Asia, making it a singular monitoring station. The design and operation procedure are both abide by the guidelines of World Meteorological Organization and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).


  • Important milestones
    • Date
      Important milestones
    • April 19, 2017
      Aerosol system software CPD3 was updated and the second CLAP was installed and went live.
    • April 11, 2017
      PICARRO CO2 monitor was fixed and re-installed, and resumed operation.
    • September 19-27, 2016
      Prof. Otto Klemm from Germany led his students to install cloud water samplers and undertook intensive sampling.
    • June 13, 2016
      The Fourth International Symposium on Atmospheric Observation and Advanced Measuring Techniques in Remote Areas and the 10th Anniversary of Lulin Atmospheric Background Station was held at the NCU. Minister Lee Ching-Yuan of the EPA, Executive Vice President Lii Kwang-hwa of NCU and Deputy Director Kin W. Moya of the US AIT delivered their remarks to open the seminar.
    • January 01, 2016
      Atmospheric mercury monitoring instrument was updated to 2537X, its latest model of the year.
    • November 15, 2015
      Newly procured atmospheric mercury monitoring instrument was installed and a test operation was run.
    • October 25- November 08, 2015
      An international collective intensive observation in winter was conducted concurrently with sampling schedules of Mount Fuji in Japan, Jeju Island in Korea, Fugui Cape and Zhuzishan in Taiwan.
    • August 11-18, 2015
      An international collective background observation was conducted concurrently with the sampling schedule of Mount Fuji in Japan.
    • March 01- April 15, 2015
      Took part in 7-SEAS Project, an international experiment in which intensive observations were conducted concurrently with monitoring stations on Doi Ang Khang, Thailand.
    • September 22-23, 2014
      Dr. John Ogren, head of the department on global aerosol observation in the US NOAA visited the station for annual maintenance and provided training on troubleshooting.
    • August 30, 2014
      Dr. Jou Jing-yang, President of NCU visited the station.
    • May 02, 2014
      Chu Yu-Chi, Head of Department of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management, the EPA, visited the station.
    • March 01- April 15, 2014
      Took part in 7-SEAS Project, an international experiment in which intensive observations were conducted concurrently with monitoring stations on Doi Ang Khang, Thailand.
    • November 19-21, 2013
      Dr. Patrick Sheridan, senior scientist of the task-force on global aerosol observation in the US NOAA visited the station for technical guidance and annual maintenance training.
    • February 22- April 11, 2013
      Took part in 7-SEAS Project, an international experiment in which intensive observations were conducted concurrently with monitoring stations on Doi Ang Khang, Thailand.
    • January 08, 2013
      PM2.5 monitors were installed to strengthen the air quality monitoring capability across the country.
    • July 27, 2012
      Lee Jian-De, Deputy Head of Department of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management, the EPA, led a group of related personnel from the Council for Economic Planning and Development to visit the station. Reporters from the Public TV Service also joined the group to cover the story.
    • September 10-12, 2012
      An international conference on collaboration on atmospheric mercury monitoring was held in Taipei.
    • June 18, 2012
      The Third International Symposium on Atmospheric Observation and Advanced Measuring Techniques in Remote Areas and the 6th Anniversary of Lulin Atmospheric Background Station was held in Taipei.
    • March 13- April 10, 2012
      Took part in 7-SEAS Project: an international experiment in which intensive observations were conducted concurrently with monitoring stations in Sơn La, Vietnam.
    • October 04, 2011
      Dr. Miyake from the University of Shiga Prefecture, Japan, led a group of research fellows to install atmospheric total mercury samplers and compared, synchronously, its data with the data collected from continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury of the background station.
    • September 20, 2011
      Dr. Martin Irwin from University of Tokyo visited the station to install black carbon continuous monitoring instrument so to conduct a long-term data comparison.
    • July 12, 2011
      Add a continuous light absorption photometer (CLAP) to complete the aerosol system upgrade.
    • March 18- April 06, 2011
      Took part in 7-SEAS Project, an international experiment in which intensive observations were conducted concurrently with monitoring stations in Sơn La, Vietnam.
    • June 16-17, 2010
      The 4th 7-SEAS Project planning meeting and the 4th anniversary of Lulin Atmospheric Background Station was held in Le Midi Hotel, Zhongli, which saw the participation of over 50 international and domestic experts and scholars.
    • March 12- April 10, 2010
      Took part in 7-SEAS Project: Dongsha International Experiment, in which intensive observations were conducted concurrently with monitoring stations in Vietnam and Thailand.
    • June 05, 2009
      Officials from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), accompanied by Liu Jyh-Jian, section chief of the Taiwan EPA, and staff of NCU, to visit the station.
    • June 02-03, 2009
      The Second International Symposium on Atmospheric Observation and Advanced Measuring Techniques in Remote Areas was held in the Civil Service Development Institute, Taipei. The opening ceremony was hosted by Minister Shen Shih-Hung of the EPA, Deputy President Liu Gin-Rong of NCU, Deputy Director Russ Schnell of global monitoring at the US NOAA, Chu Yu-Chi, Head of Department of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management, the EPA, and Prof. Neng-Huei Lin. The international experts visited the station after the seminar.
    • Oct. 09-13, 2008
      The NCU joined hands with staff of the US NOAA and installed an aerosol system, becoming part of the global aerosol monitoring network.
    • September 08, 2008
      Lulin Atmospheric Background Station completed the expansion of its platform and aerosol tower.
    • May 06, 2008
      Minister Chen Chung-Shin of the EPA led a group of related personnel and reporters to visit the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station.
    • January 14-16, 2008
      A work meeting of 7-SEAS International Experiment was held at the NCU. After the meeting, representatives of different countries visited the station to see its actual operation.
    • November 20, 2007
      A solar radiometer was installed, tested, and put into operation, joining Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of the US NASA.
    • September 06, 2007
      Chu Yu-Chi, Head of Department of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management accompanied Executive Officer Chuang Hung-Ssu of the Executive Yuan, Section Chief Hsia Chia-Cheng of Council for Economic Planning and Development and Department, and Chief Chen Hai-Hsiung of Research, Development and Evaluation Commission to visit the Lulin Mountain and conducted a field examination on the site where environmental monitoring development plan was scheduled to be implemented.
    • August 28-30, 2007
      The First International Symposium on Atmospheric Observation and Advanced Measuring Techniques in Remote Areas and the Workshop on Instrument Operation was held in 85 Sky Tower Hotel in Kaohsiung. After the meeting, representatives from different countries visited Lulin Atmospheric Background Station.
    • July 07, 2006
      Minister Chang Kow-Lung of the EPA led Chu Yu-Chi, Deputy Head of Department of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management, and Chang Shun-Chin, Department Chief to visit Lulin Atmospheric Background Station.
    • April 13, 2006
      Lulin Atmospheric Background Station Launching Ceremony was hosted by Deputy Minister Lin Ta-Hsiung of the EPA, President Louis Lee of NCU, and Deputy Assistant Administer Michael Brown of the US EPA.
    • April 11, 2006
      International Conference on Regional Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring and Long-range Transport was organized, and Deputy Minister Chang Tzi-Chin of EPA, President Louis Lee of NCU, and Deputy Assistant Administer Michael Brown of the US EPA delivered their remarks at the opening ceremony.
    • September 30, 2005
      Ground-breaking of Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, which was completed in December the same year.
    • December 02, 2004
      The EPA and NCU signed a memorandum of cooperation on the installation of LIDAR and Lulin Atmospheric Background Station.
  • ●Lulin background station events

South China Sea Environmental Monitoring

South China Sea covers a an area as large as 3 million square kilometers. It stretches from the Sumatrina and Kalimantan in the South to Guangdong and Guangxi in the North, and spreads from the Philippines islands in the East to Vietnam and Malay Peninsula in the West. Boasting of rich undersea biological and mineral resources, the South China Sea is swarmed with coral, tropical fish, and anemones, and possesses abundant natural gas, oil and fishery resources. When people are exploiting and developing these precious marine resources in the South China Sea, marine conservation should also be promoted so that environmental quality of the South China Sea can be better studied.

【Map of the South China Sea】
  • Dongsha Islands

    Dongsha Islands, locate in the northern part of the South China Sea, used to have a beautiful name, "crescent islands." The atoll surrounding the islands are world-class natural assets with diameter at around 25 kilometers. The reef flat around the atoll is 46 kilometers long, 2 kilometers wide, spreading across 50 thousand hectares. The northeastern part of the atoll is 444 kilometers away from Kaohsiung, its southern tip is 1185 kilometers away from Taiping Island of Nanshan Islands, and it's 340 kilometers to the East of Hong Kong. Dongsha islands do not have permanent residents and economic activities, but given its strategic military location, military units have long stationed here. One can take a military aircraft (of the Ministry of National Defense) or a civilian aircraft to visit the islands, which have not yet open to tourists.

    【Map of Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea】
  • Taiping Island, Nansha Islands

    Taiping Island of Nansha Islands, also know as Huángshānmǎ Jiāo, locates at 10.2238 degrees in northern latitude, 114.2159 degrees in eastern longitude, and is the largest island among Nansha Islands. It is a coral reef covering 0.49 square kilometers, locating in tropical marine climate area with temperature constantly being at 21 to 35 degree Celsius.

    On September 6 to 11, 2010 and September 21 to 28, 2009, with the assistance of Coast Guard Administration, Executive Yuan, the EPA staff boarded service vessels sailing to Taiping Island, Nansha Islands to complete the first environmental quality investigation and monitoring in the South China Sea. An air quality investigation of the South China Sea and Taiping Island was undertaken along the course, expanding the area covered in national environmental monitoring and exploring scales and techniques of spatial measurement applied to environmental monitoring. The operation bore ground-breaking significance since it helped the EPA align our environmental monitoring data with international standards, and share responsibilities in international environmental protection endeavors.

    【Map of Dongsha Islands and Taiping Island in the South China Sea】
    【Air quality sampled by the EPA task force on Taiping Island】
  • ●History
    • Date
      Important milestones
    • 2016
      Field trip on Taiping Island, Nansha Islands
      • 太平島太陽光度計維護
      • 太平島運補高雄啟航
      Prev Next
    • 2015
      A press conference on the South China Sea
      • 南海記者會
      • 南海記者會
      Prev Next
    • 2014
      Air sampling in Nansha
      • 南沙太平島空氣品質採樣
      • 南沙太平島空氣品質採樣
      Prev Next
    • 2013
      Instrument maintenance on Nansha Islands
      • 太平島太陽光度計
      • 太平島太陽光度計
      Prev Next
    • 2012
      Instrument maintenance on Dongsha Islands
      • 東沙島旋轉輻射儀
      • 東沙島太陽光度計
      Prev Next
    • 2012
      Installation on Taiping Island
      • 太平島出航合影
      • 太平島太陽光度計
      Prev Next
    • September 2010
      Environmental quality sampling on Taiping Island and Zhongzhou Reef of Nansha Islands
      • 2010.09南沙太平島空氣品質採樣
      • 2010.09南沙中洲礁環境水質採樣
      Prev Next
    • June 2010
      Presentation of Joint Monitoring Results of Dongsha Islands and the South China Sea and Dedication Ceremony of Monitoring Station
      • 2010.06 南海 3~6 月聯合監測成果發表會議大合照
      • 2010.06 南海 3~6 月聯合監測成果發表簽名留念
      • 2010.06 南海 3~6 月聯合監測成果發表署長致詞
      • 2010.06 南海 3~6 月聯合監測成果發表簽名留念
      • 2010.06 東沙環境品質監測工作站揭牌典禮
      • 2010.06 東沙環境品質監測工作站揭牌典禮署長致詞
      • 2010.06 東沙環境品質監測工作站合影留念
      • 2010.06 東沙環境品質監測工作站揭牌典禮大合影
      Prev Next
    • March- June 2010
      Joint Monitoring Project of Dongsha Islands and the South China Sea
      • 2010.02 國防部協助環保署空氣品質監測車運補東沙島
      • 2010.03~06 環保署空氣品質監測車與美國太空總署(NASA)監測設備,東沙島聯合監測
      • 2010.03~06 環保署空氣品質監測車與美國太空總署(NASA)監測設備,東沙島聯合監測
      Prev Next
    • September 2009
      Environmental quality sampling on Taiping Island, Nansha Islands
      • 2009.09赴南沙太平島航程上採樣(前方小島為太平島)
      • 2009.09 赴南沙太平島空氣品質採樣情形
      • 2009.09 赴南沙太平島空氣品質採樣情形
      • 2009.09 赴南沙太平島環境水質採樣情形
      • 2009.09 赴南沙太平島環境水質採樣情形
      Prev Next
    • January 2009
      Establish Dongsha Atmospheric Background Station
      • 2009.01 環保署、海洋公園管理處及海岸巡防署協力完成東沙島背景測站揭牌工作
      • 2009.01 環保署、海洋公園管理處及海岸巡防署協力完成東沙島背景測站揭牌工作
      • 2009.01背景測站成立時現況
      • 署長與記者們在東光醫院前合影
      • 南海屏障紀念碑前合影
      • 東沙大王廟前祭拜
      Prev Next
Dongyin and Dongsha Background Stations

The EPA started to conduct consecutive monitoring of atmospheric mercury at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station since 2006. It discovered that the concentration of atmospheric mercury increased significantly when the airflow was coming from mainland China, and the second largest impact came from the biomass burning in Southeast Asia. To fully understand the impact of long-range transport of off-shore air pollutants on our citizens' health and environment, the EPA planned to add a network of monitoring stations of off-shore air pollutants.

The determination of locations suitable for monitoring long-range air pollutants was based on seasonal meteorological circular current analysis and monitoring results of Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, as well as a working plan of a project on the preliminary evaluation of long-range transport of airborne hazards commissioned by the EPA to NCU. The EPA found that Pengjia Islet and Matsu are suitable for monitoring off-shore transport in winter, whereas Dongsha Islands are suitable for monitoring in summer. Therefore, the EPA established permanent monitoring stations in Dongyin and Dongsha, and together with Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, to track how off-shore air pollutants transport. The locations of the monitoring stations are shown in the following map.

【Monitoring station map】

In January 2009, the EPA added monitoring stations in Dongyin and Dongsha respectively. Together with Lulin Atmospheric Background Station on the Taiwan island, these stations, from the North to South, further extended the coverage of our environmental monitoring operation to include all territory within our boundary. It is conducive to track the long-range transport of air pollutants, provide a platform for international monitoring cooperation and evaluate potential impact on Taiwan.

  • Photos of Dongyin background station

    ●Located at household registration office in Dongyin(120.49°E, 26.36°N)

    【Dongyin station's surrounding】
  • Dongsha background station

    Dongsha station is located at 116.73°E, 20.70°N

    【Dongsha station's surrounding】

    The Dongsha station was installed in January 2009 under the full support of Marine Bureau, Kaohsiung City government, providing lands and facilities on Dongsha Islands to the EPA, so that the environmental monitoring operation on Dongsha can be more comprehensive. Items currently monitored are atmospheric radiation, suspended particulate, wind direction and speed. The data is transported back to servers on the Taiwan island through the internet thanks to the assistance of Marine National Park Headquarters.

    To building a long-term working base, the EPA established Environmental Monitoring Office in Dongsha in June 2010. It was meant to strengthen our monitoring capability in the South China Sea and understand better how pollutants resulted from biomass burning in the South Asia have been transported, so that it could be an outpost for monitoring long-range transported pollution going northward.

    【EPA Dongsha background station】
    【EPA Dongsha environmental quality monitoring station】

    Dongsha air quality monitoring station launching ceremony

    Dongsha Atmospheric Background Station was launched on January 6, 2009 by Minister Shen Shih-hung of the EPA, Director Wu Chuan-An of Marine National Park Headquarters, and Commander Wang Chia-Lin of Dongsha Command Post and officially started its operation after the dedication ceremony. The station, on the remote Dongsha Island, is the southernmost air quality monitoring station in Taiwan. It monitors air pollutants from Southeast Asia and southern Indochina Peninsula on a long-term basis so we can understand their threats to air quality in Taiwan, ushering in a new era of cross-regional air quality monitoring operation for Taiwan.

    Donsha Station is not only capable of grasping high seasons and paths of long-range transported air pollutants, and the areas that they might impact in Taiwan. In the future, the EPA will also promote international exchange and comparison of data through this monitoring network, and conduct joint intensive observations and exchanges of monitoring technology, which will greatly raise our profile in the international society.

    【EPA, marine national park headquater and Dongsha coast guard co-hosted ceramony】
    【Launching ceremony】